Politics & Government
Founding of Jackson/Madison County
By: Robert Briley
The western part of this great state is the Plateau of West Tennessee. This area averages less than 300 ft above sea level and is the lowest part of Tennessee, however, it has some of the greatest forest, rivers, streams, and fertile soil in all the south. Carved out of this land in the 19th century was Madison County and its seat of government, Jackson. This is the brief history of its founding.
In the 15th century prior to European arrival, West Tennessee was the home of numerous Native American Tribes such as the Mound Builders, Woodland Indians, and Mississippians. The greatest evidence of this can be found south of Jackson at the Pinson Mounds. The mounds found here are ceremonial mounds built between 200 B.C. and A.D. 500, during the Middle Woodland Period. These Native Americans built a series of at least 15 mounds for burial and religious purposes, including Saul’s Mound, the second largest Native American Mound in the United States.
Later, the Chickasaw became the most dominant Native American tribe in the area. They used West Tennessee, and particularly Madison County, more for hunting purposes. They did not establish permanent homes because of the low lying lands and the potential for flooding from the Forked Deer River (which they called the Okeena) and the Hatchie River, as well as the lack of flint which was necessary for survival at this time.
The first Europeans to visit present-day West Tennessee were the Spanish in 1540, being led by famed explorer Hernando de Soto. They came into contact with the Chickasaw, who hunted in the region during their exploration; however, they never took advantage of their discovery by settling in or colonizing the area. The French arrived in 1682 under the leadership of Robert Cavelier de La Salle. Even though they built Fort Assumption in 1739 at present-day Memphis, they abandoned it a year later.
The French had earlier built Fort Lick in present-day Nashville in 1714. These fur traders probably made treks westward across the Tennessee River looking for game, pelts, and furs.
Throughout the 1750s-60s, British colonial hunters from Virginia, Kentucky and North Carolina trekked into Tennessee looking for game. One such hunter was the famous explorer Daniel Boone, who made it all the way to present-day Madison County. After the British were victorious in the French and Indian War in 1763, they officially gained control of the area but forbade any colonists to travel, trade, or live west of the Smoky Mountains. This was a point of contention for the colonists who regularly disobeyed this proclamation.
During the American Revolutionary War, Americans continued to emigrate into Tennessee. After the war, the settlers of eastern Tennessee formed the unofficial and unrecognized State of Franklin in 1784. Tennessee became a U.S. territory in 1789 and had a large enough population to become a state in 1796, which was the 16th and last one added during the presidency of George Washington. However, even when Tennessee became a state, West Tennessee was still under Chickasaw control. In 1818 a treaty negotiated by Andrew Jackson was signed with the Chickasaw to sell the lands between the Tennessee and Mississippi Rivers for $300,000. This opened up West Tennessee for settlement.
Settlers began to move into the area quickly, being attracted by cheap fertile land that was safe from Native American attack. Some of those who came moved to the Cotton Gin Grove Community, which is east of Jackson, as well as an area two miles west of Jackson near the Forked Deer River, which became known originally as Alexanderia. It was named after Adam Alexander who was a surveyor of the U.S. Range Survey & Registrar of the Land Office in this section of West Tennessee.
One of the first settlers to move into present-day Jackson was Dr. William Butler. He came down the Forked Deer River on a keel boat in 1819 and settled near a spring south of Jackson on the 640 acres of land that he had purchased. He donated 30 of these acres, on which downtown Jackson was established. Like most of the settlers that came into the area at this time, Butler brought with him enough supplies to last him for quite some time–things like coffee, flour, cotton, farm tools, seeds, powder, lead, and some farm animals.
On November 7, 1821, enough settlers had moved into the area that the Tennessee General Assembly formed Madison County (named after former President James Madison). The stream of people increased over the next few months. Eight to ten wagons a day brought people into the area who were attracted by cheap, fertile land free from Native American attack and the potential to make a living farming. Within two years a courthouse was built, a jail erected, and weekly postal service was established. On August 17, 1822, by an act of the General Assembly, the name of the seat of justice in Madison County was changed from Alexandria to Jackson, in honor of the Battle of New Orleans hero and later President of the United States, Andrew Jackson.
By 1830, 675 residents lived in Jackson, and by 1833 that number had increased to 900. Most of these individuals became farmers who planted either cotton or corn, but there were also carpenters, blacksmiths, merchants, preachers, doctors, lawyers, and bankers. The Jackson Male Academy and Jackson Female Academy were built at this time along with a number of churches representing numerous Christian denominations. Within a few years, Jackson could boast of hotels, a newspaper, a 3 pharmacy, and plenty of cotton merchants ready and willing to ship cotton down the Forked Deer in keelboats to Memphis and New Orleans.
Jackson-Madison County is a snapshot of how America was settled. Individuals came looking for an opportunity and to make the best of it. Surviving with hard work by the sweat of their brow, they carved out their existence in the wilderness. Through perseverance, grit, and determination, they set the foundation for a city that has emerged as a major transportation and trading center which is now not only a leader in the state, but in the region and the nation as well.
For further research: tnstateparks.com/parks/pinson-mounds ducksters.com/geography/us_states/tennessee_history.php britannica.com/place/Tennessee/History tn4me.org/tpsapage.cfm/sa_id/41/era_id/3 tnsoshistory.com/chapter2 madisoncountytn.gov/315/History jacksontn.gov/residents/about_jackson
By: Mary Jo Middlebrooks
Very little is known of the early history of women in Madison County, including indigenous and enslaved women, as only the history of white men was deemed worth recording. While they supervised the household, bore children largely without medical assistance, and worked the land, women had no vote. Married women could not own property (including property they may have owned prior to marriage) and had no right to custody of their children in a divorce. The lives of women of color were much worse. To our shame, Eliza Woods, who was a domestic worker for a white family, was lynched by a mob on the Madison County Courthouse lawn in 1886. It is now believed that Woods was falsely accused of poisoning the wife of her employer.
As Madison County entered the twentieth century, women throughout the country continued to demand voting rights through passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. Sue Shelton White, the first woman to practice law in Madison County, was instrumental in the suffrage movement during the fight for women’s rights in Tennessee, which became the thirty-sixth state to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment. It took 42 years to pass what had started as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment in 1878.
At the same time, women began to organize for the purpose of service to the community and to bring about needed social change, equality and economic growth in the community. Among those organizations in Madison County were the Tennessee Federation of Colored Women’s Club, the Daughters of the American Revolution, Business and Professional Women, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Sigma Gamma Rho, Phi Delta Kappa, Links, Inc., and American Association of University Women (AAUW). All are still active today.
The Civil Rights Movement began to receive national recognition in the 1960’s. In Madison County, Lane College students bravely led the way to fight Jim Crow laws and help end segregation. They endured threats, harassment, assaults and arrests. At the forefront was Shirlene Mercer, part of the “freshman four,” as they were called because they were Lane College students. Beginning with sit-ins at Woolworth’s in 1960, she was instrumental in changing laws in Jackson and Madison County, thereby having a lasting impact on future generations. In 1962, Brenda Monroe-Moses, at age 15, became a named plaintiff in the successful class action suit filed in Madison County to accelerate school integration. She then joined the first class to integrate the school system.
In the late 1960’s, a “second wave” of the Women’s Movement began to draw national attention. Joining the women’s organizations formed earlier in the century, the National Organization for Women had an active chapter in Madison County. Men and women began to fight for passage of the Equal Rights Amendment, the ratification of which is currently in question 49 years later.
Upon entering the twenty-first century, Madison County has seen its “first women” grow into many successful and accomplished women in the professions, business enterprises, trades and other careers and occupations. We can only thank those whose blood, sweat, tears and toil have made this success a reality.